The Indian Police Service or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India. In 1948, a year after India gained independence from Britain, the Indian (Imperial) Police, was replaced by the Indian Police Service.
The First Police Commission, appointed on 17 August 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired system of police in India and defined the police as a governmental department to maintain order, enforce the law, and to prevent and detect crime. The Indian Police Service is not a force itself but a service providing leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all-India Central Armed Police Forces. Its members are the senior officers of the police.
With the passage of time Indian Police Service’s objectives were updated and redefined, the current rules and functions of an Indian Police Service Officer are as
• To fulfill duties based on border responsibilities, in the areas of maintenance of public peace and order, crime prevention, investigation, and detection, collection of intelligence, VIP security, counter-terrorism, border policing, railway policing, tackling smuggling, drug trafficking, economic offences, corruption in public life, disaster management, enforcement of socio-economic legislation, bio-diversity and protection of environmental laws etc.
• Leading and commanding the Indian Intelligence Agencies like Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigations (CBI), Criminal Investigation Department (CID) etc., Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Civil and Armed Police Forces in all the states and union territories.
• Leading and commanding the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) which include the Central Police Organisations (CPO) and Central Paramilitary Forces (CPF) such as Border Security Force (BSF), Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), National Security Guard (NSG), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Vigilance Organisations, Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies.
• Serve as head of the departments in policy making in the Ministries and Departments of Central and State Governments and public sector undertakings both at centre and states, Government of India.
• To interact and coordinate closely with the members of other All India Services and also with the Indian Armed Forces primarily with the Indian Army.
• Last but not the least, to lead and command the force with courage, uprightness, dedication and a strong sense of service to the people.
• Endeavour to inculcate in the police forces under their command such values and norms as would help them serve the people better.
• Inculcate integrity of the highest order, sensitivity to aspirations of people in a fast-changing social and economic milieu, respect for human rights, broad liberal perspective of law and justice and high standard of professionalism.
At present there are three modes of recruitment to the Indian Police Service.
These are as follows:
1. Through Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission,
2. Through Limited Competitive Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission,
3. Through appointment of State Police Service officers by promotion.
All the officers of Indian Police Service undergo probationary training at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad. After successful completion of probation, officers are confirmed in the service. Also, there is provision for mandatory Mid Career Training for IPS officers spread across the entire service span.
Allocation of Cadre
Successful candidates of Civil Services Examination allocated to the Indian Police Service are allocated to State Cadres/ Joint Cadres on the basis of their rank, preference and availability of vacancies in their category at their turn in terms of provisions of Cadre Allocation Policy of 2008 as amended from time to time. Officers recruited through promotions from State Police Services remain in their State Cadres.
Appointments to other Organizations / Bodies
IPS officers can be appointed in autonomous organizations/ sub-ordinate organizations/ PSUs/ UN Organizations/ International Organizations in various capacities. They can also serve as Personal Secretaries to Ministers in Central Government. A large number of senior posts in Central Armed Paramilitary Forces (viz, CRPF, CISF, BSF, SSB, ITBP, NSG), besides CBI, IB, RAW, etc are manned by IPS officers.
Procedures governing Promotions
IPS officers are eligible for raise in salary and promotions in their career span. The promotions take place after evaluating the performance on the basis of Annual Performance Appraisal Reports, Vigilance Clearance and scrutiny of overall record of the officer.